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The Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 in the tourism websites of the Spanish autonomous communities
Ainhoa Aguirregoitia-Martínez [C.V.] B.A. in Advertising and Public Relations - University of Alicante (UA) aam47%alu.ua.es
Abstract: This article analyses the tourism websites of Spanish autonomous communities crossed by the Way of Saint James. Considering that the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 are important touristic opportunities for these autonomous regions, the main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the information about these touristic places in their tourism websites. The analysis focused on two aspects: firstly, establishing whether the autonomous communities have used the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 to promote themselves, and secondly, evaluating the quality of the websites. The study included a literature review, definition of concepts and criteria to measure the quality of websites, and the analysis of the content and design of the selected tourism websites. The results show that the Galician website is the most complete in terms of information about the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010. The information about the Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 in the websites of the other communities is vague and differs from one website to another. Due to the touristic significance of the Xacobeo 2010 and the importance of Internet as a medium of communication, the research group plans to conduct a new analysis of the communities’ institutional websites in 2011.
Keywords: The Way of Saint James; Xacobeo; communication; website; autonomous communities of Spain.
Summary: 1. Introduction. 1.1. Tourism in the Way of Saint James. 1.2. Institutional communication and advertising. 1.3. Tourism websites. 2. Methodology. 3. Results. 4. Conclusions. 5. Bibliographic references. 6. Notes.
Translation by Cruz-Alberto Martinez-Arcos, M.A. (University of London)
Tourism can be studied from a multidisciplinary perspective. It is a sector that is undergoing a continuous and permanent process of change. For these reasons there are many studies offering complex analyses on this sector.
From the perspective of communication studies, in Spain there are few works addressing the touristic image or corporate advertising of the autonomous communities, and there are even fewer ones addressing the image created by touristic destinations through their advertising. Studies on the image that international tourists have of Spain’s autonomous communities are also few. Similarly, the studies on the performance of the autonomous communities’ institutional tourism are few and very recent . This is one of the reasons that justify our work. The other reason is that in 2010 Spain celebrates the Xacobeo, one of the most important, although temporary, touristic events, next to the Way of St. James.
The Way of St. James is the star product of Galicia’s tourism policy, and is also considered as one of the interregional brands in Spain’s national Plan of Objectives for the Promotion of Tourism Overseas. Precisely, on the occasion of the Xacobeo 2010, the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce signed an agreement with the communities of Aragon, Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria, Castile and León, Galicia, La Rioja, and Navarre to increase the international visibility of this touristic-cultural circuit.
Among the promotional activities, online promotion is one of the most important. In fact, the official tourism website of Spain has already posted a direct link to a page about the Way of St. James, which provides information about the two most celebrated routes: the French Way and the Northern Way.
Thus, both the Way of St. James and the Xacobeo 2010 are opportunities and competitive advantages for the aforementioned autonomous communities (and other communities crossed by other historic routes) to stand out above other touristic destinations. And their institutional websites are one of the means to take advantage of these opportunities.
That is why this research is aimed at examining the treatment given to the Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James in the tourism websites of the autonomous communities crossed by the Jacobean historic routes (Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile-La Mancha, Navarre, Basque Country, La Rioja, Cantabria, Asturias, Andalusia, Extremadura, Castile and León, and Galicia). The particular objectives are: 1) to determine the quality of these tourism websites; and 2) to verify whether they use the Xacobeo 2010 event and the Way of St. James for the promotion of their own territories.
The initial hypothesis is that Galicia’s institutional tourism website is the most complete in terms of information about the Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James; while the other communities crossed by the Jacobean routes have also included information on the Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James because to enhance their touristic attractions.
1. 1. Tourism in the Ways of Saint James
Talking about tourism in the Way of St. James implies we are talking about a type of tourism -religious tourism-, which is not free from certain conceptual and terminological complexity, because the Way of St. James has exceeded its original and historical religious meaning and has increasingly become a route in which the spiritual and religious purposes coexist with cultural, ecologic, environmental and sports purposes. This form of tourism has barely attracted interest among Spanish researchers, and the major studies on this subject come from Anglo-Saxon countries (Cánoves, 2006: 64).
With regards to the concept of religious tourism, most studies address the adequacy, delimitation and use of this term. Stricto sensu, Esteve-Secall (2009: 25) considers religious tourism as “a touristic activity through which those who carry it out intend to achieve spiritual grace and proximity, immersion or contact with sacred entities”. He also believes that we should distinguish the cultural-religious tourism from the ecological-spiritual and religious-spectacle tourism types.
Cánoves (2006: 65) offers a more condensed definition which considers that what distinguishes these forms of tourism are, first of all, the necessarily religious purposes of those who embark on the journey. The internationally-agreed definition of tourism assumes as touristic activities those undertaken during visits to places for a consecutive period of under one year of duration, for the purpose of entertainment, business and others. This implies that “other” purposes include the religious activities, but also that, taking the literal sense of the definition, that these “other” purposes are different from “entertainment purposes”.
As a social event, the phenomenon of religious and pilgrimage tourism, after their link to the post-Fordist tourism, is an activity in line with social changes, and for this reason it is “increasingly […] a cultural tourism with religious orientation” (Cánoves, 2006: 68). This observation was taken into account in 1985 by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) to consider religious tourism as part of the cultural category: “the movement of persons due to essentially cultural motivations as study travels, travels to festivals and another artistic events, visits to places and monuments, travels to explore the nature, the art, the folklore and the pilgrimages” (UNWTO).
In addition, religion does not escape commercialisation, i.e. the logic of the market and consumption, especially when religion is developed under a tourist form. With the passage of time, pilgrimages have been increasingly transformed into touristic events that respond to the marketing of products that energises the Church: in the temples that are “important centres of pilgrimage [...] tourists’ uses are intertwined with the devotional practices of the pilgrims, [which puts together] two logics: that of tourism which aims to transform the devotion into a spectacle and that of Catholics who seek to turn the spectacle into an opportunity to promote their religion” (De-la-Torre and Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, 2005: 59-60).
When the city of Santiago de Compostela became famous after UNESCO declared it a world heritage site in 1985, and after 1993 when the city started promoting the Way of St. James as the main product of Galicia’s tourism policy, the attraction of this site and of the city has transcended their original religious symbolism. The city and the Way of Saint James are visited by tourists and pilgrims who are driven by their creed, but especially by the economic and spiritual attractions, and beautiful landscapes of these sites.
Changes in touristic trends are attributable to various strategic actions, including the Plan of tourist excellence that Santiago de Compostela developed between 2001 and 2005, whose objective was to improve the provision of tourist services for the Xacobeo 2004.
Despite the figures unveiled by the Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela suggest an increase of pilgrims and their high religious motivation (in 2009, 42.63% claimed “religious reasons”; 48.20%, “religious motivation and others” and only 9.17% “not religious”), several sources present a different picture. Data from the Tourist Observatory of Santiago on the tourist demand in the city from 2005 to 2007 indicate that the percentage of tourists with “religious motivations” ranged between 2.8% and 4.6%.
Santos-Xolla (2006: 142) has reviewed data from different authors and studies, which confirm the decline of religious motivations. He includes the data offered by the Tourism Observatory of the Way of St. James, where religion ranked sixth, with 21%, which is quite far from purposes related to spiritualism, heritage sites, sports, or natural attractions.
There is no doubt that Galicia’s strategic policy has increased the touristic appeal of the city, by promoting and diversifying its touristic offer. This has also favoured the homogenisation of demand during Jacobean years. These plans and actions have had a positive influence in the increase of visitors. There is also no doubt that the pilgrim and walker -tourist and/or excursionist- of Santiago have changed in terms of motivations but also in relation to the Way of Saint James whose original definition in the Codex Calixtinus has been transformed: in addition to the historical routes, currently the tour includes paths and branches, which draws an increasingly complex and sometimes surprising map.
The fifth book of the  (12th century) describes the routes that began in France, crossed the Pyrenees and joined the one coming from Somport (which is the beginning of the Aragonese Way) in Puente la Reina (Navarra), to form the way to Santiago de Compostela. This is the so-called French Way, which crosses from east to west the autonomous communities of Navarre, La Rioja and Castile and León, Spain, and finally Galicia. Another historic route is the Northern Way, which runs through the communities of the Basque Country, Cantabria and Asturias.
Over the centuries other ways that virtually cross all the Iberian Peninsula have been developed and so there are many Spanish communities that are crossed by them. From the south, Vía de La Plata starts in Seville and crosses Extremadura and Castile and León. In the northeast, the Ruta del Ebro begins in Tortosa, crosses Catalonia and Aragon, and ends in Logroño; the Camino de Levante starts in Valencia and crosses Castile-La Mancha and Castile and León, and ends in Toro; finally in the southeast there are two routes that start in Alicante and terminate in Benavente (Zamora) and Burgos; they are the so-called Camino del Sureste and La Lana route, respectively.
So officially there are 13 autonomous communities and seven routes, by there could be more considering the numerous branches that are linked to the main routes. The Jacobean event is a touristic opportunity for associations and municipalities which do not hesitate to develop new Jacobean routes. A recent initiative was presented on 10 March, 2010, in the Información de Alicante journal: “Benidorm goes on a pilgrimage to the Way of St. James. The city becomes the official starting point of a new branch of the well-known Ruta de Sureste; [the objective, according to the President of the Association of friends of the Camino de Alicante,] is to offer new incentives for people who like hiking and also for pilgrims who want to take this adventure.”
In a conversation with Miguel Soldevila, chief of staff of Benidorm’s City Council, he told us that the author of this initiative was the Association of friends of the Camino de Alicante, and that the City Council thought it was very interesting because it was another way to promote Benidorm and increase its visibility. The association confirmed that they requested the City Council to let them use that branch in order to facilitate access to the main route for all the pilgrims from different localities, even though there is no historical basis for this.
The aim of this agreement is to increase the international visibility of Santiago’s cultural-touristic circuit, which involves various joint marketing and advertising actions aimed at strengthening the positioning of the touristic destinations and products related to the Way of St. James. One of the most important promotional activities is made online. In fact, Spain’s official tourism website (http://www.spain.info/) has posted a link to a page about the Way, with varied and rich information for interested tourists. This page shows the two most celebrated Jacobean routes: the French and Northern Ways.
These routes cross the communities of Aragon, the Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria, Castile and León, Galicia, La Rioja and Navarre, i.e. those communities that have already signed the collaboration agreement for touristic promotion abroad with the Ministry.
The pilgrims and/or tourists (regardless of their interests and motivations), who are attracted by the phenomenon of the Xacobeo in 2010 and are interested in some of the Ways of St. James, require information on the basic and traditional products (e.g. accommodation and restaurants), but also on essential products within this tourist modality: maps, tours, cultural heritage, and beautiful landscapes.
1.2. Institutional communication and advertising
As in the case of religious tourism, institutional communication and advertising are delicate terms to define, because their constituent elements are complex and intricate. Given the objective of this work, it is necessary to adopt a broad and inclusive view that considers the definitions and objectives of these activities.
Studies on institutional communication and advertising have addressed the public-interest character and use that this type of communication must possess, and its often diffuse social, political, corporative and commercial limits (Feliu, 2009). Of these limits, the commercial one has hardly been addressed, perhaps because it is part of the most remote and intrinsic meaning of advertising: to cause consumption and then accelerate it.
For Moragas (2005: 4), there is a clear difference between commercial campaigns, whose main purpose is to stimulate consumption and favour advertisers’ commercial strategies, and the institutional campaigns, “whose objective is not the promotion of commercial goods or services, but the promotion of social values, the correction of behaviours, the protection of properties and people, and even “the promotion of the collective self-esteem”. These definitions can be interpreted as mutually exclusive: institutional communication is not commercial, and vice versa.
According to the first law, advertising is “any form of communication issued by a person or entity, private or public, in the exercise of a commercial, handcraft or professional activity, in order to promote either directly or indirectly the hiring of properties, services, rights and obligations”.
For its part, the second law distinguishes between institutional advertising and communication: institutional advertising is defined as “any activity that is oriented and directed to the diffusion of a common message or goal, directed to a plurality of recipients, that uses a paid-for or assigned advertising platform, and is promoted or hired by one of the subjects listed in article 1” (the General State Administration and other public sector entities, listed in article 2.1 of the General Law on Budget (Ley 47/2003). This law defines an institutional communication campaign as one that “using means of communication that are different from those strictly used in advertising, and is hired by one of the subjects listed in article 1 in order to disseminate a common message or objective to a plurality of recipients”.
According to this law, the difference between the two types of communication lies only in the selected communication forms, and has nothing to do with the objectives. However, this clarity is diluted with regards to the nature of the campaign, because while the same law states (in the 2nd paragraph of article 2) that “this shall not apply to industrial, commercial or commercial campaigns”, article 3 (1.h) establishes that institutional campaigns may only be issued and hired in order to, among other objectives, “support the Spanish economic sectors abroad, promote the commercialization of Spanish products and attract foreign investment” and “to disseminate Spain’s languages and historical heritage (paragraphI)”.
Thus, it is important to wonder whether the campaigns of Turespaña (which include those for the Way of St. James and the Xacobeo 2010), which were included in the plans and reports prepared by the Committee on institutional advertising and communication, have a commercial character, and whether their aim is to “Support the Spanish economic sectors overseas”. The answer is yes in both cases. So the next inevitable question is: Shouldn’t they be left outside of the scope of the Law? Based on the grounds of their commercial nature, yes; but on the grounds of their aim, no.
1.3. Tourism websites
Both private companies and public bodies have different tools (radio, press, television, Internet, etc.) to reach their audiences. Grosso modo, the media can be classified into two broad groups; the personal media (telephone, mail, etc.), which are those dealing directly with the recipient of the message, but have a limited dissemination reach; and the mass media (like radio and television), which without achieving direct contact between sender and receiver increase the possibilities of dissemination of the message.
This traditional view of the media has been altered by the Internet, “the massive global network of interconnected packet-switched computer networks, which as a new marketing medium has the potential to radically change the way firms do business with their customers. The Internet operationalizes a model of distributed computing that facilitates interactive multimedia many-to-many communication” (Hoffman and Novak, 1995: 3).
One of the main key features of the Internet is that it exhibits features of both types of media: of the personal type, through the email, for example; and of the mass type, through the websites which are accessible to anyone (Larrondo, 2008: 6).
The successful development of the Internet has made its use necessary for public and private companies. Between 1998 and 2008, the number of Internet users in Spain (population of 14 or more years of age) went from 4.6% to 46.8%, and this percentage reached 50.5% in the last report (October-November, 2009) released by the AIMC (The Spanish Association for Media Research).
In fact, the rise of the Internet has resulted in the enactment of laws to adapt the public institutions to deal with the new forms of communication imposed by the information technologies. With regards to the public realm in Spain, the Law of Legal Regime of Public Administrations and the Common Administrative Procedure (Ley 30/1992) stated, in its article 45 (Incorporation of technical means), that the government should promote “the use and application of techniques and media for electronic information and communication in the development of their activity and the exercise of their powers”.
Recently the Law on citizens’ online access to the public services (Ley 11/2007) aimed to develop and improve the relations between users and government through the adaptation to the new technologies. In its exposition of motives, the Law states that “A modern government must promote the use of electronic communications for the benefit of the citizens”. The websites of the government entities are created then as part of the plan to offer citizens access to their information and services.
The website, which is a series of pages with a high volume of information on the same topic, product or destination, has the function of bringing together and organising such information in a simple and coherent way. The management of information is vital to achieve the intended objective, especially in the area of tourism, where information flows are continuous and intense. The success in production and sales highly depends on this management of information.
On the occasion of the Holy year 2010, this work analyses the tourism websites of the Spanish autonomous communities that are crossed by historic Jacobean routes, and in particular the portrayal of the Way of St. James and its use as a touristic opportunity for energising their own tourist territories. Without a doubt, the complicated world of tourism communication must offer touristic destinations and products that are interesting and desirable for Internet users.
The following activities were carried out in this research: 1) literature review to define the relevant concepts; 2) selection of variables to evaluate websites’ quality; and 3) analysis of the tourism websites of the abovementioned communities. The analysis of the content and design of the tourism websites of the abovementioned autonomous communities, focused on determining whether these websites were taking advantage of the tools provided by the Internet for the touristic promotion of their territories and whether they have offered information on the Way of St. James and the Xacobeo 2010.
Our initial hypothesis was that the institutional website of Galicia is the most complete in terms of information about the Jacobean holy year and the Way of St. James, and that the other autonomous communities crossed by the Jacobean routes did include information on the Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James because this enhances the touristic attractions of their own territories. The main research objects were the home pages of the tourism websites that are listed in table 1. The study was carried out between January and March, 2010, and was based on the contents offered on the Spanish-language version of the websites.
Table 1. Tourism websites
Source: Authors’ own creation
The evaluation of quality is based on six purpose-created variables, which are a synthesis of the most relevant studies on the subject (Salvador and Angós, 1999; Sicilia and Pérez, 2007; González and Cordero, 2004; Crowder and Bailey, 2005; Tognazzini, 2003). Each parameter was ranked with 0 (“absence”) or 1 (“presence”). The scale used to measure the variables of quality of the websites, ranged from five to three. Variables and parameters are as follows:
2. The Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James. The inclusion of this specific variable is aimed to determine whether information on these events appear in the analysed websites, which is the main objective of our research. To do this, we first reviewed the home page; when such information was not visualised on the home page we searched the term “Xacobeo 2010”, “Way of St. James” and “Xacobeo” within the website. When the website did not have the search option, we searched the information on these events in the website’s map. The measurement parameters for this variable are:
3. Design. Another essential aspect of a tourism website is an organised and functional design to help users to find information and visualise the contents. The audiovisual content of the website should add value, and not just be a design element. The measurement parameters for this variable are:
4. Links: updated, useful and clearly visible links are helpful to the user. The measurement parameters for this variable are:
5. Accessibility: “Accessibility is a subset of a more general pursuit: usability. Put simply, usability means designing a user interface that is effective, efficient, and satisfying” (Henry, 2002: 7); “websites and intranets must follow usability principles and make it easier for customers and employees with disabilities to perform their tasks” (Nielsen, 2001: 5). The measurement parameters for this variable are:
6. Navigation: This variable is measured using criteria such as the search option, the ease to navigate the site, download time, and the sitemap. The measurement parameters for this variable are:
Table 2. Maximum values that can be achieved by variables
Source: Authors’ own creation
The tourism websites can reach a maximum score of 22 points if they obtain 1 in all the parameters.
As table 3 shows, none of the analysed websites achieved the highest score (22 points), although four of them ―Navarra, La Rioja, Basque Country, and Castile and León― reached 21 points. These websites achieved the same score in all the variables and all parameters of measurement, except in the “Xacobeo 2010 and Way of St. James” and “Link to the official website of the Xacobeo 2010” variables. On other words, their home pages do not have a link to the official website of the Xacobeo 2010, but do offer relevant information on the routes that exist within their territory, which means that they do take advantage of the holy year to promote their territories.
Table 3. Classification of institutional tourism websites
Source: Authors’ own creation
The website of Navarre stands out above the others in terms of relevant content, design and functionality. This has been considered the ideal website to promote the touristic destinations of an autonomous community, since it implemented correctly the tools provided by the Internet for this purpose; the structure of its content is very suitable for users because it achieves the informative purpose.
The tourism website of the Basque Country can be considered as ideal as that of Navarre, because it has abundant and precise information, its design is clear, clean and functional, and provides information on the Xacobeo 2010 through an image at the top of the page. However, it has been considered the second best website because we think that it should aimed for a less sober design and better visibility of the featured content and links of interest.
Like the previous two, the websites of La Rioja and Castile and León reached 21 points, which is very close to the score of the ideal website, according to the measurement parameters. Both lack a link to the official site of the Xacobeo 2010, but scored well in other variables, and take very good advantage of the tools provided by the Internet to promote tourism in their territories. They occupy the third and fourth places, respectively, because the buttons to return to the home page, their sitemaps and the contact section do not have enough visibility, and because, although they appear on the home page, their location and treatment is not appropriate. The contact option and access to the site map need to be more visible. Finally, their information is not as ordered and functional as it is in the website of Navarre.
Our research confirmed our hypothesis that the tourism website of Galicia would be the most complete in terms of information on the Jacobean holy year because it is in fact the most notorious and popular tourist event of the Galician community. In terms of the second variable, “Xacobeo 2010 and Way of St. James”, the Galician website was the only one that achieved the maximum of 4 points. However, it only reached 20 points because it lacks accessibility features for disabled people.
The websites of Asturias and Galicia reached 20 points. They are both ideal websites because their content and design are fully consistent with their purpose. However, they fail in some parameters. The website of Asturias offers accessibility features for disabled people but does not provide information on the operation of these features; while the website of Galicia, as already mentioned, is not accessible for disabled people.
The group of “Acceptable” websites includes, in descending order, those of Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, Cantabria and Andalusia. They are in this category because they failed in some of the variables considered in the analysis.
Aragon’s website does not have complete information on the Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James, which is surprising given that in this community (Somport) the Aragonese way starts to later join the Roncesvalles way, in Puente de la Reina, and finally start the oldest and most renowned route way of St. James: the French way. The downloading of audiovisual material in Aragon’s website is slow, but its design and the segmentation of links according to touristic typologies are pleasant and functional.
The tourist website of the Valencian Community (18 points) has a good design and content, and uses Internet tools correctly in the promoting of tourism. However, it does not offer content on the Way of St. James, despite being the starting point of three routes: Camino de Levante, which starts in the city of Valencia, and the two Southern ways, with originate in Alicante.
Cantabria (15 points) offers complete tourist information, but the design of the website does not facilitate usability. The structure of content is a bit chaotic and does not have aids for persons with disabilities. Despite the historic Northern way crosses its territory, Cantabria’s website offers scares information on the Way of St. James.
The tourism websites with the worst scores and classified as “improvable” were those of the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha and Extremadura. We can say that the website of Castile-La Mancha (13 points) is not functional because it lacks aids for people with disabilities; its design is not the most appropriate to highlight the most relevant content; and does not provide information about the Way of St. James, which crosses this region in the East.
Based on the analysis of the websites’ content and design, in the following table we offer recommendations for improvement:
Table 4. Recommendations for improvement
Source: Authors’ own creation
It is necessary to stress that the tourism website of the Galician community is the most complete in terms of information on the Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James, which fully confirms our initial hypothesis. The information on the Xacobeo 2010 and the Way of St. James in the websites of the autonomous communities that are crossed by the historic routes is uneven and varied, which only partially confirms the hypothesis that these communities would take advantage of the holy event and the way of St. James to promote themselves.
At the beginning of this work we defended the importance of a good management of websites to achieve the objectives of the promotion of the Way of St. James and the Xacobeo 2010. Now that the analysis has been completed, we conclude that the use of the tools and applications designed to facilitate greater and better development of the information is not completely efficient within the revised websites.
Instead, the analysis has showed that none of the websites of the autonomous communities managed to achieve the maximum score, because they did not meet completely all the parameters of quality in all the variables: content, Xacobeo 2010 and Way of St. James, design, links, accessibility and navigation. The analysis allows us to assert that, except for Galicia’s website, there is a lack of promotion of events related to the Xacobeo 2010 in all of the websites.
The five communities that do not include information on the Way of St. James (Andalusia, Castile-La Mancha, Catalonia, Valencia, and Extremadura), and especially those whose traditional product has been in the sun and beach, are missing a very important opportunity to enrich their tourist offer. These communities should not only promote the Way of St. James during the current year, but permanently because that would enrich the interest on their own natural and cultural touristic attractions they are trying to promote, due to the decreasing interest in their sun and beaches.
Regarding the degree of quality of the tourism websites, the room for improvement is broad, since only 46.15% of the websites are ideal, while 38.46% are acceptable and 14.39% can be improved. These significant differences between the different websites reveal that their online strategies do not follow basic guidelines of information management, and that the autonomous communities should exploit their unique advantages over other communities, but do not do so. This is the case of Galicia which should have focused on the creation of an unbeatable tourism website on the occasion of the Xacobeo 2010.
Based on the tourist significance of the holy year in Spain, its long duration, and the dynamic and changing nature of the Internet, we believe it is relevant to continue examining the tourism websites of these autonomous communities, throughout 2010, in order to observe possible improvements and obtain, thus, more decisive conclusions
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Fernández-Poyatos, M.D., Aguirregoitia-Martínez, A., Boix-Martínez, B. (2011): "The Way of Saint James and the Xacobeo 2010 in the tourism websites of the Spanish autonomous communities", at Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 67, pages 023 to 046. La Laguna (Tenerife, Canary Islands): La Laguna University, retrieved on ___th of ____ of 2_______, from
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