10.4185/RLCS-2019-1326en | ISSN 1138 - 5820 | RLCS, 74-2019 | |
Adolescents, social networks and transmedia universes: media literacy in participatory contexts
Julián de la Fuente Prieto [CV] [ ] [ ] Department of Philology, Communication and Documentation. University of Alcalá, UAH, Spain email@example.com
Translation made by Krystyna Sleziak (University of Swansea, Wales))
Learning is connected to our environment and for young people this learning revolves around the media. The Internet has become an important context for learning through new digital practices and discourses. Audiovisual communication is increasingly present in this ecosystem, becoming at the same time a tool and object of literacy.
The overall aim of this study is to analyze the processes of media literacy among young people. Our gaze is focused on non-formal settings where learning occurs in a collaborative way. We therefore want to analyze both the practices and audiovisual discourses that adolescents developed through new media. Due to this, we have three specific goals, to:
To do this, we will begin by analyzing the theoretical framework of these issues and then perform an empirical analysis based on direct experience with adolescents in a digital creation workshop.
1.1. From media literacy to connected learning
Media literacy is defined by David Buckingham as "the knowledge, skills and competencies required to use and interpret the media" (Buckingham, 2004, p.71). This supposes, from a traditional point of view, that media literate people have the ability to read as well as to write in and from the media. But this author also points out that "media education proposes both critical understanding and active participation" (Buckingham, 2004, p.21)
This concept has been quickly adopted by the educational community, in line with other proposals focused on the updating of school curricula such as multiliteracies (Gee, 2012) or new literacies (Jenkins, 2009). In Spain, a very relevant contribution is the project on media competence (Ferrés, 2012, Rodríguez et al., 2011) that brings together a large number of academics responsible for defining a series of indicators, on which to develop a quantitative analysis of the degree of knowledge, skills and attitudes of Spaniards to the media. In addition, we can highlight the UNESCO initiative, proposing a curriculum aimed at developing media and information literacy (Wilson, Grizzle, Tuazon, Akyempong, & Cheung, 2013) that seeks a common framework for media education in the world.
The most recent contribution to these theories about learning through the media has been the "Transliteracy" project coordinated by Carlos Scolari (2018) in which a new notion of literacy is proposed, this time putting the accent on convergence media and on the informal learning exchanges that occur, especially among the youngest:
Therefore, studies that specifically address these literacy processes among adolescents and even more outside school contexts are still necessary (Lacasa Díaz, 2018, Livingstone & Sefton-Green, 2016). This leads us to seek a methodology for media education, which is not limited to functional literacy, but which is also able to promote practices and discourses of the socio-cultural context of youth (Cortesi et al, 2015; Itō, 2010). In this sense, one of the most recent models would be connected learning (Ito et al., 2013), which implies the sum of personal interests, peer collaboration and school performance. It is a learning context that combines real and virtual environments, by creating a community of practices in which anyone can participate:
In this, as in other models there is an underlying desire to establish an open, collaborative and meaningful learning whose axis of action is participatory culture and collective intelligence. (Carpentier, 2011, Lévy, 1997) It is a model that is born in the field of psychology as well as education and that is currently increasingly rooted in communication, especially in practices and discourses associated with new media (Burn, 2009, Lowgren & Reimer, 2013). Therefore, we will now analyze how this participative culture is influencing the audience of interactive media.
The traditional treatment of media audiences has given way to a new conception, establishing an active role for the public when it comes to appropriating and constructing the meanings of the messages present in the media. (Sullivan, 2013; Zeller, Ponte, & O'Neill, 2014) The key to understanding this process is the participation and role of adolescent audiences, not only in the reception but also in the production of messages through media. In other words, young people are not characterized by being spectators of a medium, but by living in a specific context with which they interact thanks to the media. This is stated by Richard Butch and Sonia Livingstone (2013) as follows:
This new role of the audience has been identified within a participatory culture (Jenkins, 2009, Jenkins, Itō, & Boyd, 2015) through different levels of activity that take us from merely viewing a content to interacting with it, getting involved in its creation or even leading its dissemination. This nuance of considering audiences as participants in the media, allows us to introduce different models, depending on their commitment and degree of participation within the media:
Numerous academic studies (Duffett, 2013, Gray, Sandvoss, & Harrington, 2007, Stein, 2015) have identified fan culture as one of these models, especially representative of the new roles that audiences adopt in the media. According to Louisa Stein (2015), the fan audience is not modeled exclusively by the consumer industry, but has its own autonomy as a user of the media. Its main hallmark is the appropriation of the contents through a community that regulate both the consumption and the dissemination or production of these messages. It is in these cases that the media reverts to the context where these cultural practices of interaction between users and construction of meaning take place:
As either users, creators or simply consumers, young audiences are increasingly active both inside and outside the media. This suggests we should decide how these practices are altering our perception of the actual media, leading to a total immersion in the content. The thread of our social practices is the narrative and its dominant form of discourse is what we call Transmedia.
1.3. Transmedia storytelling and word-building
The notion of Transmedia was first proposed by Henry Jenkins at the beginning of the 21st century through his article "Transmedia Storytelling" (2003). From here, this concept has been constant in its bibliography, which has been responsible for exploring from other phenomena such as media convergence (Jenkins, 2008) as well as the extensibility of content or "spreadibility" (Jenkins, Ford, & Green, 2013). The success of this proposal is not only justified in its generalization among the academic community, but also in its rapid adoption by the content industry.
In his more in-depth analysis of the logic of this process, Carlos Scolari opts to identify two dimensions in the transmedia phenomena (Scolari, Bertetti, & Freeman, 2014) On the one hand observing the narrative at textual level and on other the media from the social point of view. Only when both dimensions converge does the transmedia experience take place.
This concept of transmedia discourse forces us to overcome the analysis of narrative as a story, to start considering the narrative as a social practice. According to Marie-Laure Ryan (2014) we cannot continue talking about story but about storyworld. This implies not only considering the traditional textual categories, but also the cultural dimensions of any narrative phenomenon. Thus, the meanings no longer depend exclusively on the content, but also on the practices associated with it.
In this way we can identify the transmedia with a discourse that combines a narrative and social experience at the same time. Narrative from the point of view of creating characters and a fictional space-time; but also social because all the people involved in the phenomenon have an immersion or interaction from the media point of view. This is what Kalogeras (2014) means when he states that both consumers and producers participate in this work of world-building:
Figure 3: Creation of Transmedia Universes
In this sense, the industrial logic to which we referred earlier (Bernardo, 2011, Pratten, 2011) continues to segment the narrative through the media to differentiate content made by fans, derived from a primary content generated by professionals. However, this logic is not sustained from the point of view of users of a transmedia world. Maybe in the world of fiction there is still that gap between producers and users, but in other areas such as education, the transmedia discourse seems destined to definitively break down traditionally assigned roles (de la Fuente Prieto, 2014).
The transmedia discourse transforms the audience into users and consumption into participation. As a social practice associated with the creation of worlds, it allows us to create communities and share meanings. But its true revolution lies in the ability to overcome the technological context of the media, to focus on its narrative context. In our daily experience the media increasingly function as cultural objects rather than technological tools.
As has been reviewed in the theoretical framework, our research is based on new media practices and discourses associated with their context. But we also wanted to focus the study on a population that is especially sensitive to these changes, such as children. Studies on childhood have a personality of their own in social research, and specifically in the field of media and their literacy (Boyd, 2014, Jenkins et al., 2015) There are increasingly more studies applying qualitative methodologies, especially in the field of new media (Gair & Van Luyn, 2017; Vittadini et al., 2014)
Qualitative methodology is characterized by its in-depth rather than extensive nature, it requires the interpretation of analyzed data and, above all, it is usually an iterative process in which each step can drive research reformulation. Within this approach, each project requires a specific design and the implementation of several combined methods (Berger, 2016, Maxwell, 2013). But above all, qualitative methodology is a commitment to a socio-cultural epistemology, which aims to establish an explanation rather than rules about the world we live in.
According to Meulenaere and Grove (2016), an empirical research study based on these practices should therefore include the study of the procedures by which it is carried out, the understanding of the meaning it has for the participants, as well as the identity that is establishes with the material results. Only if we take into account these factors, can we interpret the true meaning of the practices in new media.
The research design places the evidence in community contexts, in which young people develop a series of audiovisual practices through a process of participation. Following the latest research in this field (Cortesi et al., 2015, Delgado, 2015, Livingstone & Sefton-Green, 2016) we face the challenge of using qualitative methods that allow us to approach this data:
First of all we must make sure that the participants understand our research perspective and that we understand their context of activity. To do this, we proposed the use of participatory methods, such as Action Research (Brites, 2016; McNiff, 2013) that allows us to reflect on our own practice. In this regard, the workshop planning is reviewed before each session so that it is a process that suits the media culture of the participants and not vice versa. As a result, we can reproduce the practices that young people develop in the media and at the same time promote literacy processes through them. When codifying all these data we chose to primarily use research summaries.
In addition to considering our young participants as active and reflective, we must bear in mind that there are no barriers between their activity outside and within social networks. Other methods used must therefore integrate the different levels of interaction used by young people, including the different contexts in which these practices occur and especially the various roles they take on within the community. According to several authors (Boellstorff, 2012, Pink, 2012) virtual ethnography is an interesting option to use here. The advantage offered by this method is being able to combine the analysis of multiple data collected through a unique audiovisual record.
Finally, we needed to develop a method of gathering evidence about the meanings that young people build through the media. It was therefore very important to use visual methods (Margolis & Pauwels, 2011; Rose, 2016) which would enable us to analyze audiovisual representations that young people build both connotatively and denotatively. All the more so if these visual methods are participatory, since according to Gregory Stanczak (2007) they offer an alternative for young people to participate in both the generation and interpretation of their own visual data:
Figure 4: Combination of methods for data collection
In short, our research design implied the need to combine a series of methodological strategies that allow us to approach the data holistically. That is, addressing both the social, material and cultural dimensions of the practices we intended to analyze.
2.2. Context and participants
Our study object were the practices that children develop within a community which researchers form a part of. According to Susan Gair and Ariella Van Luyn (2017) this context can be achieved through the development of creative activities through new media and at the same time in physical contexts, both shared by researchers. In our case, we decided to create these communities of practice by performing digital art workshops with children in participatory contexts.
Specifically, this initiative was developed in the Intermediae space (http://intermediae.es); a city-lab that is integrated into the contemporary creation center "Matadero Madrid". The project involved organizing a series of workshops for adolescents, to develop digital creation linked to community spaces. The aim was for participants to use social networks as creative tools, while researchers examined how the environment and cooperative learning influenced both the works and the messages they generated.
The workshops were held out between the months of November 2014 and May 2015 and consisted of a total of ten sessions. Most took place one Sunday each month for two and a half hours, but in some cases a double session was scheduled on Saturday and Sunday with the same participants. Participation was invited through the Matadero Madrid programming and was open to any pre-adolescent and adolescent between eight and fourteen years of age. Adults generally did not participate in the workshop activities, but they shared the same spaces as participants and were invited to view the creations at the end of the session.
Initially, the only division introduced into the workshops was to be the creation of the large group that included all participants and researchers and the small group that was to divide participants by age. There were to be no closed age groups, but rather a separation between small, medium and older children, adapted to each session according to the development of the participants. These small groups were able to support or adapt the contents viewed in the large group and above all to develop the workshop practice with support from the researchers.
The number of participants varied greatly in each session, ranging between 10 and 23 people. However, both the infrastructure and the research team was the same for all sessions. There were 21 tablets available so that participants could make the audiovisual creations they wanted. Sometimes they had to share them, but most of the time they used one per person. These tablets had a complete list of audiovisual creation and editing applications. They also allowed access to the Internet and social networks, through a connection by mobile phone card. Both connectivity and interactivity between applications was thus ensured.
The collection of ethnographic data was carried out through the audiovisual recording of each session. Three cameras were used to record large group situations from different angles, and were then used separately to record activities in the small groups. Each researcher also had an audio recorder to use at times when they interacted firsthand with each participant or those moments when the video camera was not recording for whatever reason. In addition, another researcher took photographs of the different situations that occurred in each session and that would serve as a resource to illustrate the data analysis. All these data were completed with the summaries written by each researcher at the end of the workshop, as well as the minutes of the group meetings which the previous organization had distributed. Finally, we have the record of the audiovisual creations made by the participants that were also published through the profile of the research group on Vimeo (https://vimeo.com/gipi).
Table 1: Analyzed data (Group GIPI)
For the analysis we focused on three sessions which took place from January to March 2015. The link between them is that in all of them video was used as a creative tool through different applications that in some cases also incorporated social networks. Through the proposed methodology, the sessions of 18/1, 08/2 and 14/3 are examined diachronically through action research, ethnography and content analysis.
To perform analysis, we need to understand all the processes and people involved in the workshop as a whole. To interlink all these elements, we would turn to the theory of expanded learning (Engeström, 2001; Gutiérrez, Engeström, & Sannino, 2016) that allows us to develop an activity model through which we can explain how participants engage in a community of practice to generate meaning collaboratively in the context of the workshop:
This Activity System (Daniels, Edwards, Engeström, Gallagher, & Ludvigsen, 2013, Engeström, Miettinen, & Punamäki, 1999) has been adopted by numerous researchers to analyze various contexts, especially educational ones. However, it does not refer only to formal learning experiences, but to all those practices involving joint innovation development within a community. This is how Engeström and Sannino (2010) represent this model:
Figure 6: Activity System according to Egeström and Sannino (2010)
To understand this activity system, we must begin by locating the participants as subjects on one side of the model. On the other side are their creation objects in the upper vertex measured by the instruments considered as tools and signs used. To this system a social and cultural context must be added, identified with the community at the base of the pyramid. This community is characterized by division of labor between experts and novices, as well as rules that constitute the use of certain means and discourses associated with these practices. The ultimate goal, represented in outcome involves identifying both a sense of the personal as well as the collective meaning of these practices:
By using this model, we can establish several previous categories (participants, instruments, rules, community, roles, goals and creations) from which we can begin to codify the evidence that the collected data provide us with. An added complication is that these are sources of a different textual, visual and auditory nature: The written documents were the research journals, as well as the summaries of the group meetings. Visual information was based on photographs taken during the workshops, whilst the audiovisual record started from the recordings of the dialogues with the participants.
For this particular project, we decided to use the NVivo 10.2 software that allowed us to work simultaneously with text, photographs or video. This allowed us to generate nodes directly from the images or audio, without creating intermediate descriptions or memos. We only transcribed the dialogues that we considered most representative in terms of their use in the research results. This technique allowed us to process large amounts of interactions within the workshop (over 15 hours) and specially to maintain the context of each of these events analyzed. Thus, we were able to triangulate the extracted data in order to interpret the results in a narrative and conceptual way (Lacasa, Martinez-Borda, & Mendez, 2013)
Again, we stress that the approaches to data and analysis models intertwine holistically in our interpretation. This is so because our goal is not so much to obtain structural patterns of the analyzed practices as to explain the keys that generate them and enable discourse reproduction. Literacy processes and participation are at the base of this methodology that requires starting from the precise to identify general models.
The results of this research project carried out in Matadero Madrid by the Images, Words and Ideas Group are outlined below. It was a media literacy experience aimed at children between 8 and 14 years of age through digital creation workshops. Following the model of the activity system, we will look at the participant references, the instruments of creation, the rules of languages, the participation in community, the roles derived from learning, the shared goals and finally, the video creations. In this way we hope to fully reconstruct the practices collaboratively developed in the workshop.
3.1. Participants and their references
The setting of any practice requires dedicating a moment at the beginning of the workshop to contextualize the children in their usual media activity. To get to know the participants, there is nothing better than to ask them about their use of the Internet and in particular of social networks. Although many of them recognize that they do not surf freely on the Internet due to their age, others are users of Instagram. It usually coincides that those who are more active in these social networks are also recognized fans of music groups or celebrities; mixing popular culture with alternative or emerging activities.
It is certainly surprising that their media references are celebrities on social networks rather than on traditional media, despite the fact that the Internet access participants have is more restricted than access to radio or television. The primary evidence for this is that the influence of the Internet as a channel is greater than that of any other communication medium. In fact when asked about it, they do not hesitate to recognize content creators in social networks as a paid profession:
In this transcript it is clear that for participants not all social network users are equal. They describe a specific profile of creators called “youtubers” who they follow through different social networks in addition to YouTube. Some of them even identify themselves as one of these “youtubers” because they also create original content for social networks. They specifically refer to the gamers who record the video game matches and then publish them:
Despite being active users of social networks, most participants realize that they still have much to learn in content creation. In fact, many express their interest in making better videos to get more followers on social networks. This interest is fully in keeping with the objectives of the workshop and allows us to connect learning with participant experience.
3.2. Instruments and applications
The next step in the workshops is to give the tablets to the participants so that they can freely explore how they operate. Participants’ previous experience was usually limited to taking photos or videos with phones or home computers belonging to their parents. This meant that most participants had restricted full mastery of these tools and the content they could create through them. Normally it is the parents who manage their creations within the domestic sphere, as the following transcript shows:
Many participants are therefore unaware of the existence of social networks and their use in creating and sharing content. One of the first tasks carried out in each workshop was therefore to give a thorough explanation of how to manage the main video tools offered by the tablets.
This was carried out in a practical way, reproducing both the interface and the commands on a screen that the participants would later use. The researchers focused on two apps: Vine and Instagram. Both stand out above all for their differences in duration and playback movies:
The most important thing is that these two applications are also social networks and therefore the possibilities of creating contents are predefined to a certain video format. This makes it easier for participants to use, but also restricts their creative freedom in terms of the duration or editing of the video. That is why the researchers did not hesitate to propose using another different application that offered further possibilities, but which above all did not subscribe to a specific social network:
A literacy process is involved in the participant’s use of all these applications and this leads them to set their objectives on the social network, to then complete the learning process on the editing tool. The main insight this process offers us is that it is necessary for each application to differentiate between its dimension as a tool for creation and as a social network, if the application includes this.
3.3. Rules and languages
Promoting a transmedia literacy process implies the use of different media with their corresponding rules. Similarly, the use of different audiovisual languages may pose a theoretical controversy for the researchers during the preparation meetings of each session. The first question to ask is how far the social network influences the use of language and secondly whether it does so from the standpoint of technology or social impact:
Having implemented the previous workshops exclusively through the Instagram social network it was necessary to explore other tools for content creation. Perhaps for that reason, we began to dissociate the creation applications from the social networks in the tablets. The purpose of this was so that participants could become aware of separating the processes of creating, editing and performing interaction.
For example, it was suggested that participants create from a language that was not specific to the social networks they use, such as sound. One of the tasks proposed during the second session was to modify the ambient sound of a video through different sound effects. During the third session participants were even given the freedom to use photography and video indistinctively, with the result being an audiovisual content that could be published through a social network.
Promotion of transmedia literacy was therefore fostered by exploring different languages and rules within each social network. In fact, great efforts were made to convey the uniqueness of each language, particularly in these sessions through video. However, evidence proves that audiovisual creation can be achieved through different resources and applications.
3.4. Community and participation
Rather than creating their own community in the workshop, the goal was for young people to integrate into existing digital communities on the internet. Participation in the digital society was one of the most powerful objectives we were able to propose in the workshop. Getting participants to have full control and the ability to use social networks for their own ends. That is why we greatly insisted, through dialogue and reflection, for them to tell us their concerns. Most researchers agree that this is one of the first steps in driving their experience to become a significant activity for them and not merely a task to be completed:
As we can see, their references usually conect with elements which are close, and immediate to their experience in the workshop. The important thing in any case is that they feel that they can contribute something within their present context. During the large group session there was a lot of emphasis on this, so that it did not become a mechanical task and they were able to rationalize why they participated in social networks. This is shown in this transcript in which the researcher is interested in their motivations:
The goal of participation was thus able to be a conscious decision but also freely chosen. Each participant decides whether to use the social network in a family, school or use-open environment. In fact, we cannot think of better evidence about the acquisition of this goal than the decision made by one of the participants to keep their account on social networks private. Regardless of the age limitations implied by the use of these networks, becoming aware of whether or not you want to use them publicly demonstrates that participants are fully enabled to interact in virtual environments:
The evidence we can draw is that full participation in social networks depends not only on the ability to create content or communicate through them, but above all on the conscious use of what it means to interact with other people. When participants liken the activities performed in networks to their relations in their physical environment, then this is when this full participation occurs.
3.5. Roles and experts
The only roles referred to at the beginning of the workshops were those of the researchers and the participants. However, one of the great innovations introduced in these sessions was the figure of the expert. This was the role played by participants who had already had previous experience in the workshop and helped both researchers and other participants to develop it. The proposal was suggested at a meeting of the research group and is related to the creation of a community of practice both within and outside the social network:
Experts really are the best evidence of the success of this media literacy experience. However, it is significant that they did not acquire this role by practice, but had it appointed to them when the workshop was organized. The evidence here is that it is essential to establish a division of labor and tasks among those attending the workshop. Only when each participant accepts the role of his or her own experience can learning activity become fluid.
The division into novice, expert and researcher fitted perfectly into the workshop. While the researcher encourages the creation of common goals, the expert can help with more technical issues and the novice generates ideas to meet the objectives. The final result of these interactions is a system of activity in which several roles are intermingled, as well as situations of small and large groups in which the participants interact in different ways. In this way collaborative learning is encouraged and the distribution of activities within the workshop is particularly improved.
3.6. Goals and narrative
According to the activity system, the achievement of goals is what gives meaning and generates sense to the objects that the participants create in the workshop. One of the joint goals in these sessions is the narrative or the ability to tell stories. Perhaps it is the most complex aim since it not only implies mastering the tools and knowing how to use the audiovisual language, but also building a story with the available elements. Similarly, to artistic creation, the first step proposed by the researchers was to explore the immediate environment and try to establish a narrative based in it:
This task led to working on the domination of some of the key elements such as space, time and characters. The next task was to establish a staging and an action or events to narrate. Our first hurdle appeared here, because the first impulse is to opt for preset stories. Such is the case of iMovie, through which templates suggest story models that each user simply records in real image until completing a film trailer. Researchers were adamant that this practice model should be avoided:
Creating a story from scratch is a complex task which is why we choose to return to work in small groups, encouraging interaction among participants, experts and researchers. Working in pairs requires participants to express and trade their ideas. This dialogue leads to the ability to narrate in images, subsequently recording the actions and helping each other in editing to introduce titles or effects. The final result is small fictional scenes that manage to tell a short story with meaning:
It is very difficult to learn to narrate in a single workshop, but you can start creating content around a fictional story. The ability to generate a staging through a space, time and specific characters shows that participants are able to narrate beyond the limits of the representation of their immediate environment. Almost like a game, they are opening the doors to creating stories beyond their everyday reality.
3.7. Creations and transmedia
The result of the workshop were the creations made by the participants, through the instruments and with the support of the community practices. Thanks to the analysis of all these elements we can interpret these videos beyond their formal aspect or denotative content. In fact, our intention was to understand them as transmedia universes, built from the creation of fictional worlds. The joint learning about languages shows that participants are able to construct a narrative without the context or objects of the environment conditioning the meanings they can come up with. Indeed, we found several examples of fictional stories built during the workshop, based solely on the imagination of the participants.
There are several ways to create a transmedia universe. Participants often start from their intuition, but mostly from well-known references. Staging a fictional situation was one of the most commonly used formulas in the workshop. For example, in figure 14, a video made by two eleven-year-old children is played in which they simulate how one of them puts his fingers in a socket and receives an electric shock. The tone used in the audiovisual is comical, since the actions are exaggerated and funny music is used. Electricity even appears as a character in the final shot, where an intense light is matched with an audio of childish laughter. In addition to knowing how to perform the scene, participants were able to modify the message through editing, using elements which fitted in with world building.
In Figure No. 15 we see another example in which, thanks to sound, a different story is constructed from the recorded images. In this case, there are two shots recorded at different moments of the workshop, in which a young man is shown looking to the side and then a girl running in the same direction. On the image of the young man, a deep sound is superimposed and on the girl a sharp cry. Neither of the two participants was acting when they were recorded, but the two girls of thirteen and fourteen who made the video took advantage of these images at random to mount this sound fiction. What is surprising is the use of editing in the purest constructivist style to generate a transmedia narrative universe.
The last sample of world-building is found in the video reproduced by Figure No. 16. A single eleven-year-old child records, add sounds and interprets this sequence without editing or cutting. In a dark room he begins to shake the camera in the initial shots, while referring to the presence of a monster. The image goes black while guttural sounds are heard and occasionally the face of the child who plays the monster approaching the camera. Suddenly, the sound is interrupted and the child's normal voice is heard again, wondering what is happening to the camera. It is a clear genre narrative, both in the content represented (the presence of the monster) and in the aesthetic (darkness, errant camera). The video is every bit as good as any commercial horror movie. This is genuine evidence of the ability to use a transmedia universe in which this participant demonstrates mastery of both the language and audiovisual narrative.
The research findings resulting from the goals specified at the beginning are listed below. Once the practices of the young people in the workshop had been reconstructed, through the activity system model, we were in a position to explain how media literacy processes take place in non-formal collaborative contexts of digital creation.
Regarding the functions performed by young people through social networks we have defined three characteristics that correspond to creation, dissemination and privacy:
The contents that young people create are articulated through transmedia universes that we can describe from the medium, space and narrative used:
In sum, this study reveals several factors to be taken into account in the media literacy of young people: the importance of connecting physical and virtual environments in cooperative contexts; the need to become aware of the communities that generate interaction in social networks and the functionality that transmedia narrative implies in the creation of fictional worlds. Future research needs to make an in-depth study of these contexts, practices and discourses. Only then can we truly understand what the youngest people are doing with the new communication tools in the 21st century.
Berger, A. A. (2016). Media and communication research methods : an introduction to qualitative and quantitative approaches. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bernardo, N. (2011). The producer's guide to transmedia: How to develop, fund, produce and distribute compelling stories across multiple platforms. London: beActive.
Boellstorff, T. (2012). Ethnography and virtual worlds : a handbook of method. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Boyd, D. (2014). It's complicated : the social lives of networked teens. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Brites, M. J. (2016). "Family Digital Cultures and Understandings of the World: A Critical View of Participatory Action Research". Paper presented at the ECREA 2016, Praga.
Buckingham, D. (2004). Educación en medios :alfabetización, aprendizaje y cultura contemporánea. Barcelona: Paidós.
Burn, A. (2009). Making new media: Creative production and digital literacies (Vol. 32)London: Peter Lang.
Butsch, R., & Livingstone, S. M. (2013). Meanings of audiences: comparative discourses. New York: Routledge.
Carpentier, N. (2011). Media and participation : a site of ideological-democratic struggle. Bristol: Intellect.
Cortesi, S., Gasser, U., Adzaho, G., Baikie, B., Baljeu, J., Battles, M., . . . Burton, P. (2015). Digitally Connected: Global Perspectives on Youth and Digital Media. London: Berkman.
Daniels, H., Edwards, A., Engeström, Y., Gallagher, T., & Ludvigsen, S. R. (2013). Activity theory in practice: Promoting learning across boundaries and agencies. New York: Routledge.
De la Fuente Prieto, J. (2014). "Alfabetización mediática: Del prosumidor al profesional". Historia y Comunicación Social, 19, 13.
De Meulenaere, J., & De Grove, F. (2016). "A Practices Approach to Mediated Social Relation Maintenance Behavior". Paper presented at the ECREA 2016, Praga.
Delgado, M. (2015). Urban Youth and Photovoice: Visual Ethnography in Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Duffett, M. (2013). Understanding fandom : an introduction to the study of media fan culture. New York: Bloomsbury.
Engeström, Y. (2001). "Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization". Journal of education and work, 14(1), 133-156.
Engeström, Y., Miettinen, R., & Punamäki, R.-L. (1999). Perspectives on activity theory: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Engeström, Y., & Sannino, A. (2010). "Studies of expansive learning: Foundations, findings and future challenges". Educational research review, 5(1), 1-24.
Ferrés, J. (2012). "La competencia mediática: propuesta articulada de dimensiones e indicadores/Media Competence. Articulated Proposal of Dimensions and Indicators" in Comunicar, 19(38), 75-82.
Gair, S., & Van Luyn, A. (2017). Sharing qualitative research : showing lived experience and community narratives. New York: Routledge.
Gee, J. P. (2012). Situated language and learning: A critique of traditional schooling: routledge.
Gray, J., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (2007). Fandom : identities and communities in a mediated world. New York: New York University Press.
Gutiérrez, K. D., Engeström, Y., & Sannino, A. (2016). "Expanding Educational Research and Interventionist Methodologies". Cognition and Instruction, 34(3), 275-284.
Itō, M. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out : kids living and learning with new media. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Ito, M., Gutiérrez, K., Livingstone, S., Penuel, B., Rhodes, J., Salen, K., . . . Watkins, S. C. (2013). Connected learning: An agenda for research and design. Irvine: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub.
Jenkins, H. (2003). "Transmedia Storytelling: Moving characters from books to films to video games can make them stronger" in MIT Technology Review. [https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401760/transmedia-storytelling/] (Retrived 1/06/2018)
Jenkins, H. (2008). Convergence culture la cultura de la convergencia de los medios de comunicación (Vol. 175). Barcelona: Paidós.
Jenkins, H. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Jenkins, H., Ford, S., & Green, J. (2013). Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture. New York: NYU Press.
Jenkins, H., Itō, M., & Boyd, D. (2015). Participatory culture in a networked era : a conversation on youth, learning, commerce, and politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kalogeras, S. (2014). Transmedia storytelling and the new era of media convergence in higher education. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lacasa Díaz, P. (2018). Expresiones del futuro: cómo se comunicarán las nuevas generaciones. Madrid: Morata.
Lacasa, P., Martinez-Borda, R., & Mendez, L. (2013). "Media as Practice: Narrative and Conceptual Approach for Qualitative Data Analysis" in Studies in Media and Communication, 1(2), 132-149.
Lévy, P. (1997). Collective intelligence. New York: Harper Collins.
Livingstone, S. M., & Sefton-Green, J. (2016). The class : living and learning in the digital age. New York: NYU Press.
Lowgren, J., & Reimer, B. (2013). Collaborative media : production, consumption, and design interventions. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Margolis, E., & Pauwels, L. (2011). The SAGE handbook of visual research methods. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design : an interactive approach (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.
McNiff, J. (2013). Action research: Principles and practice. New York: Routledge.
Pink, S. (2012). Situating everyday life : practices and places. London: SAGE.
Pratten, R. (2011). Getting Started with Transmedia Storytelling. London: CreateSpace.
Rodríguez, M. A. P., i Prats, J. F., Sánchez, J., Aranda, J. J. S., Santibáñez, J., Sierra, J., . . . Trabadella, J. (2011). Competencia mediática. Investigación sobre el grado de competencia de la ciudadanía en España. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación.
Rose, G. (2016). Visual methodologies : an introduction to researching with visual materials (4th edition. ed.). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ryan, M.-L., & Thon, J.-N. (2014). Storyworlds across Media. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Scolari, C. A. (2018). Teens, media and collaborative cultures: exploiting teens' transmedia skills in the classroom. Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
Scolari, C. A., Bertetti, P., & Freeman, M. (2014). Transmedia archaeology : storytelling in the borderlines of science fiction, comics and pulp magazines. Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stanczak, G. C. (2007). Visual research methods : image, society and representation. London: SAGE.
Stein, L. E. (2015). Millennial fandom : television audiences in the transmedia age. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
Sullivan, J. L. (2013). Media audiences : effects, users, institutions, and power. Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London: SAGE.
Vittadini, N., Carlo, S., Gilje, Ø., Laursen, D., Murru, M. F., & Schrøder, K. C. (2014). "Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users". International Journal of Learning, 4(2), 33-45.
Wilson, C., Grizzle, A., Tuazon, R., Akyempong, K., & Cheung, C. (2013). Alfabetización Mediática e Informacional Curriculum para profesores. Paris: UNESCO.
Zeller, F. e., Ponte, C. e., & O'Neill, B. e. (2014). Revitalising audience research : innovations in European audience research. New York: Roudledge.
How to cite this article in bibliographies / References
J de la Fuente Prieto, P Lacasa Díaz, R Martínez-Borda (2019): “Adolescents, social networks and transmedia universes: media literacy in participatory contexts”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 74, pp. 172 to 196.
Article received on 30 May 2018. Accepted on 13 June.