10.4185/RLCS-2019-1325en | ISSN 1138 - 5820 | RLCS, 74-2019 | |
Educommunication in the context of youth and adult education in Latin America: A state of the art based on a systematic literature review
Sonia Casillas Martín [CV] [ ORCID] [ GS]. Associated Professor. University of Salamanca (Spain) - email@example.com
Almudena Barrientos Báez [CV] [ ORCID] [ GS]. Associate Professor at the Iriarte University School of Tourism adscribed to the University of La Laguna, ULL (Puerto de la Cruz,Tenerife-Spain) – firstname.lastname@example.org
Translation by CA Martínez-Arcos
This article presents a systematic literature review of articles addressing education/communication and youth and adult education in Latin America. A thorough search was carried out in the WOS and Scopus databases, which resulted in a sample that is described in the methods section.
The objective is to present a state-of-the-art review based on high-impact articles, and to assess the scientific production in this area, to develop a first scientific basis suitable to continue working and delving into the study of basic education, especially youth and adult education, in Latin America.
The study departs from the idea that this type of education plays an especially relevant role in Latin America, particularly in certain countries, and therefore this education sub-system needs to be further developed. And obviously, in the 21st century, we cannot overlook the importance of communication and ICTs as an educational tools as well as the education sub-system addressed in this study.
2. Theoretical framework
2.1. Educommunication in the teaching-learning context
We can and must do everything within our reach as educators to transform information media into communication media. We must encourage and promote receptivity, criticism and creativity through these media. This is the main goal of total language teaching (Gutierrez, 1976: 32).
Close to the end of the second decade of the 21st century, there is an oversaturation of information and communication and new technologies are present in almost all activities people carry out on a daily basis. Communication is the foundation of social coexistence for every human being (Beltrão, 1977 and Bordenave, 2005: 16-17) and that this discipline has always been present in the field of education. Without basic communication, both verbal and non-verbal, it would be very difficult to establish a correct information flow that would positively affect the teaching-learning process. Moreover, in some way, Communication and Education, as academic disciplines, have complemented each other, although this understanding seems to have found greater interconnection since the advent of the Internet and especially after the 21st century.
Días (2011: 56-57) has made a list of the most relevant technologies that have been made available to teachers throughout history: video, videotape, videodisc, satellite communication, teletext, video games, videotext, audiotext, hypertext, mobile telephony, online journals, blogs, digital cable television, pay TV, and subscription-based TV, and even interactive TV and high definition TV (HDTV). Días (2011: 58) rightly points out that:
This leads us to conceive education as the full formation of the individual in which the almost infinite potentialities of communication occupy a central and determinant place for social transformations and for the power attributed to those peoples and nations that collect information and new knowledge.
All this without forgetting today’s most-used device: the computer (both desktop and laptop). Communication has always been incorporated into education and it has been used to a greater or lesser extent depending on diverse factors, such as the socio-cultural and economic development of countries, their educational systems, education levels and sub-systems. But always bearing in mind that:
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), in general terms, favour a very different type of learning centre which is often influenced by the media (Gutiérrez, 1976). We cannot overlook the presence of these media and their significant capacity to be part of the teaching-learning process, either directly or indirectly, from humans’ early stages of development:
In the same vein, García, Callejo and Walzer (2004) emphasise the importance of television as an educational element, taking into account that it is a primary medium in the social, family and home environments. Some even refer to television as a “parallel” school (Vallet, 1970), although it is not the objective of this work to analyse this controversy, nor the pros and cons around this view.
What does seem to be clear is that school educates but so does the media. The educator must be aware of this and that is why educators have, largely, used the media as tools to improve that process.
In early ages, particularly childhood but also adolescence, the figure of the educator is essential and the need for direct contact between teacher and pupil is indisputable. Where the educational world has begun to change in relation to this aspect is in higher education -in the university in particular- where e-learning has emerged with enormous strength.
Within the adult world, perhaps media tools and ICT should be understood as an advantage and not as a threat and with a very important characteristic: virtual relations (Sabater, Martínez and Santiago, 2017). The educator must know how to manage and take advantage of all the new ICT to turn the teaching-learning process into a dynamic and entertaining as well as enriching and valuable method (Herrero-Gutiérrez and García-Valcárcel, 2015). In some way, the teacher acquires the role of gatekeeper for the enormous amount of knowledge that ICT, the Internet and the media put within the reach of society.
The educational system “must take the lead to bring some order to the knowledge typical of the mosaic culture” (Días, 2011:83) and try to “incorporate to schools and universities methods that teach to select and teach to learn, in the perspective of Delors (1996); Morin (1999) and Perrenoud (2004)” (Días, 2011:83), which will lead the teacher to personal recycling.
2.2. Youth and adult education in Latin America
The current state of Education in Latin America is characterised by various factors that influence it as parameters of action and provide elements of which the education processes derive (Sena-Rivas, 2013). To this end, in the last thirty years, national documents, legal reforms and comparative studies have been produced to face the challenges of a globalised world in Latin America.
Acencio, Valiente, Triviño and Gutiérrez (2017), after reviewing the national legislations of 16 Latin American countries, conclude that the challenges of Latin America are encompassed in two macro-perspectives. First, the framework that refers to the formation of the individual for his development as a person coherent with the social environment, in the cultural aspect, and the development of his capacity. Second, they point out the strategic contributions of education to face and overcome the challenges of this century. This allows us to delimit the characteristics that warn us about the need to develop scientific models and to assume universal priorities to increase the quality of education in the 21st century. According to Cruz (2017), we live in a global society that gradually uses information and knowledge and, as a result, depends increasingly less on manual labour due to the increasing use of automation process. However, education plays a crucial role because, as García, Albolatrach, Gómez and Ortega (2017) point out, the principles underpinning the formation of political and ideological values are established through education, as well as the influence to transform societies and improve vocational training. Faced with this reality, Amelia, Reyes and Colmenárez (2017) conducted a literature review and concluded that Latin American countries continue to face the same challenges they faced in past decades, despite constant strategies to overcome the current condition.
To understand the previous situation, we must emphasise that youth and adult education represents an opportunity to establish the foundations of major social changes. It is a different education that has essential characteristics that must be considered. It emerges as a result of a problem of formal education, at early ages, and social inequalities, characterised by people living in situations of poverty and social exclusion (Sena-Rivas, 2013).
Bonder (2008) notes that social research works in Latin America have as common object of study marginal groups, whose particularities depend on the context, sexual orientation, family, neighbourhood, school and work history. To respond to this reality, these works encourage the development of a set of initiatives framed within innovation processes. These processes should be planned through social practices that take into account the new social division of labour. In this sense, since the 1990s, a set of reforms were made focusing on the impact of equity to clarify specific changes in the education sector. In that regard, Andrade Oliveira and Feldfeber (2016) compared the legacies of recent reforms and concluded that at this new stage there is a hegemonic dispute, in which neoliberalism and post-neoliberalism coexist in a complex and contradictory manner. The educational reforms assume responsibly those offers that allow focusing on specific objectives, around the central elements of those policies that determine the practices that are associated to excluded sectors and give space to market and civil society and, at the same time, transfer responsibilities to schools and families. In this same line, Rivero (2009) points out that youth and adult education represents a right associated with the constant evolution occurring in the educational context, specifically in functional and absolute illiteracy. Therefore, publications in Latin America usually address it from the perspective of constructivism and according to, Becerra (2016), are divided into three groups: those that seek to explain constructivism based on field problems; those that take developments in constructivism as an object of critical study; and those that adopt constructivism as a framework for national and conceptual analyses.
In this regard, youth and adult education is addressed from four dimensions: being, knowing, deciding and doing. According to Ghiso (2016), to do this, it is necessary to build the speciality of the social pedagogue on a proposal of endogenous professionalisation; i.e., to frame popular education within ethno-education despite being an area under construction and dispute; given the nature of the tacit knowledge that has characterised it over the course of the years.
2.2.1. The role of the teacher in the context of adult basic education
As a result of this process, the understanding of the role of adult education has changed significantly compared to the last decade, acquiring an importance that implies a philosophy linked to formal education based on theories that delimit the peculiarity of the process in behavioural, cognitive models of education for life and work. That is, an education that is open to dialogue, and critical of political constraints, associated to numerous factors related to age which are modified according to personal circumstances and enrich knowledge, framed in lifelong learning. Since 2000, there has been an increase in programmes that promote policies that privilege this context.
Souza, Adenilson and Gomes (2018) point out that the academic and professional training of teachers for youth and adult education is non-existent as a career. There are courses that guide this kind of training, approaching the discipline that discusses youth and adult education in the curricular structure. They claim that almost in all of Latin America there is an absence of education “for educators” of young and adult people as a career or college degree, which in some way may also influence the teaching-learning process of this group. This has occurred despite the fact that youth and adult education is a key area to build fair and sustainable societies.
Probably, this stagnation in the teaching process that we are addressing as an object of study is also influenced by the low presence of ICT and Communication within the aforementioned field, which should be further studied:
2.3. State of the art review
Based on the previous situation, it is appropriate and relevant to know the state of the art of our object of study. In other words: to know what is being researched and what are the interests of scientists in this aspect. The premise is that the scientific world addresses what can in turn affect the reality of the youth and adult education subsystems. Science, in this sense, should positively influence and help to improve the teaching-learning systems in this group.
3. Objectives, hypotheses and research questions
The study is guided by the following research questions:
Based on these questions, the general objective is to perform a systematic review of the literature that examines the relationship between Latin America and the use of communication, whether this correlation exists, in the educational processes of youth and adult teaching-learning. To be precise, this objective involves the following two specific objectives:
The initial hypotheses are as follows:
The study is based on the systematic literature review method, approached from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives (Hidalgo-Marí et al., unpublished). However, since this is a bibliometric study, the quantitative approach will prevail over the qualitative, as Compte Pujol, Matilla and Hernández (2018) point out in a text backed up by a wide literature specialised in bibliometrics.
Since the objective is to approach the state of the art, we believe that this method of literature review is the most suitable. Systematic review emerged as a method in the health sciences (Berveley, Booth and Bath, 2003), in the field of medicine, and can be defined as:
With the passage of time, the systematic literature review has expanded to other areas of knowledge, including social sciences (Petticrew and Roberts, 2006; Ferreras-Fernández, 2016 and Mangas-Vega, 2018), which is the field addressed in this study. In fact, some authors (Togerson, 2003) propose that all research works should be preceded by a review of this type.
The systematic literature review method can be used in two ways: as a complement to a wider research (Codina, 2015) or as a study in itself (Galán et al., unpublished).
Given the thematic relevance under study and considering the potential of the systematic literature review method, in this case it is presented as a study in itself, to highlight the panorama on the selected topic. Thus, we will review the literature to place it in perspective (Ramos, Ramos and Romero, 2003); such a process will be developed to “identify the main part of a literature review; to this end we extract the most relevant works based on previously established criteria” (Galán, et al., unpublished) in order to inform about the state of the art (Guirao and Silamani, 2015), very mindful of the importance of establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria with precision to avoid bias, which is of vital importance: “the systematic review synthesises the results of other research works through strategies to avoid bias. These tactics are based primarily on the search for high-impact articles, with clear and reproducible criteria” (Galán et al., unpublished).
This is a type of quantitative tool, but we also aim to use it qualitatively to overcome the limitations of the quantitative approach. Perhaps the qualitative part may cause some kind of interpretation on the part of encoders, but we will try to establish variables with the lowest subjectivity possible.
Due to the exhaustiveness that we aim to implement, it is very important to design a data collection sheet, especially on those aspects that will have a more qualitative interpretation. Therefore, the method, with its search and analysis criteria, should be systematic and try to reduce coders’ interpretations to the minimum.
In this sense, authors such as Codina (2015) point out that “the systematic concept means that it is not arbitrary or biased, and that the best sources have been used” (Galán et al., unpublished, citing Codina, 2015).
4.1. Quantitative analysis
First, we performed the quantitative analysis focused on Latin America. A systematic review of articles in WOS and SCOPUS databases was performed based on the following criteria (tables 1 and 2)
Table 1. Search criteria for data collection in WOS
Source: Authors’ own creation.
Table 2. Search criteria for data collection in SCOPUS
Source: Authors’ own creation.
With regards to the collections, in WOS the search was performed in the Core Collection, selecting the “all years” period, and including SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI and ESCI (figure 1). In SCOPUS, initially, there were any restrictions other than the ones listed above. The review took into account the articles published by 1 July 2018.
Image 1. Search collections in WOS
These search criteria were used to review the literature on “Latin America” in global terms, but also in a country-by-country basis.
4.2. Qualitative-quantitative analysis
The second stage of research consisted of a mainly quantitative analysis, but with some qualitative variables, on certain articles: the ones related the most to our object of study and which became the selected sample. The following analysis sheet (Table 3) was applied on those articles:
Authors’ own creation based on Galán et al., unpublished, Hidalgo et al., unpublished; Xu et al., 2015).
4.3. Population and sample
The population for the quantitative phase consists of the entire database of WOS and ScopuS. This study does not use a sample and instead carries out a comprehensive analysis based on the aforementioned criteria and the selected collections.
For the qualitative-quantitative phase, a sample was selected using the following criteria:
ScopuS: Search in title: educ* OR com* AND adul* AND yout* OR jov* AND latin* OR [+ each of the countries] (limitations: social sciences and research articles).
The following formula was used to search in SCOPUS:
The search returned 16 results (annex 2). Then, a similar search was conducted in WOS, returning a total of 29 articles (annex 1). We must bear in mind that this sample includes duplicated articles (i.e., belonging to both databases) and that to complete the study the search also included the numbers 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 (see annex 4). Thus, we included articles that returned from this triple search (annexes 1, 2 and 4). From these articles, we selected a sub-sample formed by those articles that had direct relationship with our object of study, according to encoders’ appreciative criteria. The analysis sheet (table 3), described in the previous section, was applied on this sub-sample.
4.3.1. Countries included in the study
The sample included the following countries, which were searched for individually and separately and according to the following keywords:
América Latina à Latin America (Search: “Améri*” AND “Latin*” / “Latin*” AND “America*”)
4.4. Time period and language
Only articles published by 1 July 2018 were considered in the sample. The analysis was performed during the entire month of July 2018 by a team of four researchers.
Regarding the keywords, based on the parameters used, it is interesting to point out that apart from searches in Spanish and English, the searches also returned all results found in Portuguese, which is very interesting considering the analysis of Brazil.
The first thing that should be noted is that 672 searches were performed in the WOS and Scopus databases (32 searches (16 in WOS and 16 in Scopus) * 20 countries + Latin America). The general quantitative results are presented below in Table 4, Figure 1 and Table 5, which present the scientific production that exists when we take each country as an object of study. These data reflect the total scientific production which has been found in the two databases, taking each of these countries separately + Latin America; and also presenting the total.
Table 4. Summary of articles found in total
Source: Authors’ own creation.
Figure 1. Total scientific production by country.
Table 5. Summary of articles found according search type (II), legend: see annex 3
Source: Authors’ own creation (type of search: see annex 3).
The following image presents the mapping of the search results of articles for each country (Image 2).
Image 2. Mapping of scientific production by country.
As for the correlation between Education, Communication, Educommunication and youth and adult education in Latin America, the articles hardly yielded any results (table 6). In total, 32 articles were found (table 6); after discarding duplicates (for being present in both databases), the total number was 23 (table 7 and annex 4).
Table 6. Number of articles that relate Education, Communication and Educommunication with youth and adult education in Latin America
Source: Authors’ own creation
Table 7. articles that relate Education, Communication and Educommunication with youth and adult education in Latin America in WOS and SCOPUS (32 minus duplicates = 23)
Source: Authors’ own creation.
Having advanced to the qualitative phase and having obtained the sub-sample, according to the criteria set in the methods section, we obtained a total of 18 articles (present in the various annexes, marked with the numbers 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 22, 33 36, 37, 41, 42, 51, 54, 56, 57 and 59). Other articles related to topics such as the relationship between depression and education, religious education, environmental education, sex education, technological education applied to romance and sex, medical education, disability and studies about psychology and psychiatry.
In order to resolve the third hypothesis, the 18 articles selected for the sub-sample were analysed in the following aspects: first, generic features and object of study (table 8), followed by methodological traits, population and sample (table 9) and, finally, data on results (table 10).
Table 8. Generic features of articles
Source: Authors’ own creation.
Table 9. Methods of articles
Source: Authors’ own creation.
Table 10. Results and conclusions of the articles
Source: Authors’ own creation.
6. Discussion and conclusions
First of all, it is important to highlight the fact that the global scientific production is very similar among the articles found in WOS and SCOPUS. Two countries, Brazil and Mexico, stand out as objects of study in the field of “Education and communication”, in all its possible searches.
When it comes to relating education, communication and Educommunication with youth and adult education in Latin America, the scientific production is really scarce and there are hardly any results in the form of articles published in high impact-factor journals. Of the 5,420 results found in global terms, only thirty address the relationship between “Education”, “Communication”, “Youth and adult people”. Therefore, we can conclude that, at least in terms of high-impact-factor articles, there is a very low production and it is necessary to continue delving and promote the visibility of this field. Thus, we have confirmed the first hypothesis. Future lines of research will enable us to continue carrying out searches in another databases and find out whether the literature is greater when we focus on low-impact literature (for example, in PhD theses, conference proceedings, etc.).
On the other hand, having analysed the results and carried out the corresponding mapping by countries, Brazil is the country most frequently taken as object of study, which confirms the second hypothesis. In this sense, we can point out that the low production that exists on certain countries can be due to the fact that their education systems have not been sufficiently implemented yet and their GDP are generally low.
However, and highlighting the previous idea, the production is negligible in general terms when we try to relate to Communication with ICTs within Education, and applying all this to youth and adult education.
Finally, based on the results and the analysis of articles from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, there is a prototype research article addressing the relationship between Educommunication and young and adult education in Latin America.
In this sense, the research prototype that we found is an article addressing only Education, or in combination with Communication, published in a single language, usually Portuguese (correlated with Brazil as one of the most relevant countries), signed by 1 or 2 authors, produced in Brazil, taking Latin America as object of study (generic) and published in the last 5 years. The method is preferably quantitative, based on various techniques (survey, mapping, experiment...) with a population that by rule is a country, with non-clearly specified or convenience samples. Most of these articles present a synthesis of results, in written form, and in more than 50% of cases are not accompanied by graphics, tables, statistics or images. Based on the previous, the third hypothesis is rejected.
In general terms, the research warns of the unfortunate low scientific production in this very specific subject. The object of study has been reduced to the correlation between youth and adult education and the concept of “Educommunication”, understanding that communication is a vital tool in any type of teaching-learning process, including the one addressed in this text. However, production is really scarce. Adult education plays a fundamental role in many Latin American countries, for the reasons described throughout this text. Many Latin American governments also feel this way and enhance this education sub-system. Moreover, taking into account the current importance of ICT in learning processes, it is essential to continue encouraging this type of education mediated by the aforementioned ICTs. And to make this possible, it is necessary to continue addressing this field from a scientific point of view, with the clear objective of improving all these aspects by practically applying all the scientific production.
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Annex 1. Articles in WOS
Annex 2. Articles in SCOPUS
Annex 3. Search legends in table 5
Annex 4. Articles returning from searches 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32
How to cite this article in bibliographies / References
WR Sena Rivas, S Casillas Martín, A Barrientos Báez, M Cabezas González (2019): “Educommunication in the context of youth and adult education in Latin America: A state of the art based on a systematic literature review”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 74, pp. 133 a 171.
Article received on 2 0ctober 2018. Accepted on 26 December.